Broadly speaking there are two categories :
- Secondary Hypertension : There is some specific reason or disease in one or more body organ which leads to development of high blood pressure. Some examples are valvular heart disease, acute stroke, long term consumption of steroids or oral contraceptive pills, impaired function of kidneys, narrowed blood artery to kidney, etc.
If we can clearly diagnose and control such underlying reason of high blood pressure, a person can be cured of his high blood pressure. For example, changing valve in case of valvular problem, discontinuing steroids or oral contraceptive pills, carrying out regular dialysis for kidney failure, doing angioplasty for narrowed kidney artery, etc.
This secondary hypertension is seen in 3-5% of total adults with high blood pressure. It is more likely when presenting age of the person is either less than 20 or more than 60 years.
2. Primary / Essential Hypertension : There is no specific cause or reason for development of high blood pressure and that’s why it is known as idiopathic hypertension also. And this is the case in approximately 95% of patients with hypertension. Impaired lifestyle and some genetic elements are considered responsible for this situation.