(1) Rheumatic Fever / Rheumatic Valve Disease : In our country, this is a very important cause of valve disease. Generally, people staying in unhygienic and crowded areas become victims of this disease. Deficient nutrition also predisposes one to this disease.
There is a throat infection with pain in the joints and fever at an early age. At times, in addition to joints, rheumatic fever also involves the heart. In a few such patients, slowly the heart valves get damaged over a period of many years.
(2) Degenerative Valve Disease due to Ageing (Sclerodegenerative ) : This problem is seen in some old people after the age of 65 – 70 years or more. The most commonly involved valve is the aortic valve.
(3) Congenital Valvular Disease (Congenital Heart Disease ) : Some newborn children have narrow or leaking valve. Sometimes it assumes a very intense and serious form in the initial Stage of life only.
(4) Due to Infection on the valve (Infective Endocarditis) : This is quite an uncommon and very serious disease. Infected valve leaflets or its supportive structure may acutely rupture and cause severe leakage of the valve.
(5) Connective Tissue Disease : In this disease, the tissues forming the valve are weak.
(6) Coronary Artery Disease OR Major Heart Attack : Because of reduced blood supply, the muscles supporting the valve become weak and lead to leakage of valve.
Besides this, there are some uncommon reasons also.