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Introduction : In many states of illness or uncommonly in some normal states also, the body cannot eliminate water (liquid) and sodium (salt) in required quantity through urine. This can also happen when RAAS becomes overactive. Due to increase in water-sodium level, the arteries become brittle/stiff and blood pressure increases. Problems like, dilation and weakening of the heart, kidney failure, swelling, shortness of breath, etc. occur in the long run.

Effects : These medicines eliminate extra liquid and sodium from the body. Because of this, efficiency of heart increases and blood pressure decreases.

Uses :

  1. High blood pressure
  2. Heart failure
  3. After Heart attack

Dose :

Tab Furosemide : 10-160 mg per day

Tab Torsemide : 5-100 mg per day

Tab Spironolactone : 25-100 mg per day

Tab Eplerenone : 25-50 mg per day

Tab Hydrochlorothiazide : 6.25-25 per day 

Tab Chlorthalidone : 6.25-25 per day

Tab Indapamide SR : 1.25 to 2.5 mg per day

Side effects :

  1. Dehydration
  2. Loss of salts like sodium and potassium
  3. Bodyache
  4. Changes in heart rhythm
  5. Increase in blood sugar and uric acid
  6. Tinnitus : Abnormal sounds in ear